Many people live daily with violence, threats and violations. Violence is something more than physical blows and kicks. Anger problems can be one of the causes of violent behavior, although there are also a number of other causes behind the violence.


Photo: by Gabriel Benois on Unsplash

Important to know about violence

A report for the Norwegian Government, "Report to the Government 15 (2012-2013): Prevention and combating violence in close relationships", defines violence like this:

Violence is any act directed at another person which, through this act, injures, hurts, frightens or offends, causes that person to do something against his will or stops doing something he wants. - Per Isdal.

Violence is often associated with physical acts, but can also be psychological, material, sexual and latent. Violence is thus various acts that have in common that they injure, hurt, frighten or offend another person.


Different types of domestic violence

Violence has many expressions. Psychologist Per Isdal operates with five different types of domestic violence:


  1. Physical violence. Physical violence is acts that cause physical injury or pain, but also acts that physically hinder the other's freedom of movement. Examples of physical violence are: hitting, kicking, beating, strangling, shaking, pinching, scratching, biting, lugging, twisting the arm, holding and pushing. Physical violence is very frightening and can in its extreme consequence lead to death.

  2. Psychological violence is any way of harming, intimidating or offending that is not directly physical in nature. There can also be ways to control or dominate others, using an underlying power or threat. There may be direct or indirect threats, degrading and humiliating behavior, control, extravagant jealousy, isolation and emotional violence.

  3. Material violence is acts directed at objects or inventory. Examples of material violence are: Hitting and kicking furniture, walls, doors, hitting the table, throwing and destroying objects. Material violence is frightening in itself, and if physical violence has been used before, the material violence can be very paralyzing for those who are exposed to the violence. The fear of being exposed to physical violence is increasing. Material violence is not an alternative to physical violence!

  4. Sexualized violence is acts directed at another person's sexuality. Examples of sexual violence are: Sexual harassment, pressuring and forcing the other to sexual acts, rape, sexualized torture. Sexualized violence affects our most private and vulnerable side and destroys sexuality in a relationship. Those who commit various forms of violence in a relationship can sometimes think that they repair the pain and apologize for having sex, while those who are exposed to violence may find that it is too unsafe to say no and that intercourse then becomes an abuse.

  5. Latent violence: While the perpetrator of violence (physical, material, sexual) experiences the violence as isolated incidents, those who are exposed tell that the violence is with them all the time, by virtue of its possibility. Latent violence can easily develop into the dominant form of violence for those who are exposed. The risk of new violence will be able to control much of what the victim does and the behavior will be strategic in order to avoid new violence. The latent violence is not only our conscious expectations of new violence - the body also remembers previous violence and automatic reactions can put the body on alert at the slightest sign of danger of new violence.